Sir Henry Dale Fellows
For outstanding postdoctoral scientists wishing to build their own UK-based independent research career addressing an important biomedical question. This scheme is a partnership bringing together the Royal Society and the Wellcome Trust.
Dr Filipe Cabreiro, UCL
Exploring the gut microbial action of metformin: targeting the gut microbiota to treat metabolic disease
Filipe is a biochemist with a background in exploring the biological mechanisms underlying molecular stress protection and ageing. Recently he has pioneered the use of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to study how drug-microbiota interactions affect host metabolism and ageing. This work has led to a focus on host-microbiota interactions and metabolic disorders. Using a combination of metagenomics and gnotobiotics, his research seeks to gain insight into the gut microbial action of drugs in higher organisms and to develop strategies for targeting the gut microbiota to treat host metabolic disease.
Dr Alan Cheung, UCL
Molecular mechanisms of transcriptional activation
Alan is a structural biologist interested in the fundamental mechanisms of gene transcription and how those mechanisms are used to control mRNA expression in eukaryotes. His group is based at the joint Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology at UCL and Birkbeck, and will combine a variety of structural, biochemical, biophysical and genetic methods to dissect and study the very large macromolecular complexes that mediate transcriptional activation. Alan's goal is to understand how these complexes act as focal points for transcriptional regulation.
Dr Iwan Evans, University of Sheffield
Studying integration of apoptotic cell clearance and macrophage migration dynamically in vivo
Iwan's research aims to understand how apoptotic cells influence macrophage behaviour and motility, both via intercellular signalling and events post-engulfment. To achieve this his lab is taking a genetic approach, studying a highly motile population of macrophages called hemocytes, which are found within fruit fly embryos. In identifying novel regulatory mechanisms, Iwan aims to provide new targets to manipulate macrophage behaviour in the wide range of human diseases in which they contribute to disease progression, such as cancer, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation.
Dr Shukry Habib, King's College London
The molecular mechanism of Wnt-mediated asymmetric stem cell division
Shukry is a stem cell biochemist with research interests in understanding the extrinsic and intrinsic cues that choreograph stem cell behaviour during homeostasis, injury, and tumorigenesis. Recently Shukry has demonstrated that a localised source of Wnt signals induces oriented asymmetric cell division (ACD) of embryonic stem cells. By applying principles from bioengineering, stem cell biology and advanced imaging techniques, Shukry aims to gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of ACD at the single-cell level, as well as in a tissue context. These studies will aid in our ability to utilise and target critical cells for regenerative medicine.
Dr Zamin Iqbal, University of Oxford
Statistical methods for analysing complex genomic variation in human pathogens
Zamin studies the genomes of different strains of pathogens that cause human diseases. Unlike humans, whose DNA all looks remarkably similar, pathogen strains often have significantly different genomes, which they achieve by swapping large chunks of DNA. These differences are very important, as it is known that strains of a pathogen acquire new abilities (e.g. drug resistance in MRSA, immune evasion, or even the ability to infect humans) through these mutations. Zamin's lab aims to provide insight into pathogen biology and epidemiology, and directly assist clinical decisions, by producing computational tools that analyse new samples or outbreaks in the context of the 'super-genome' of the entire species.
Dr Benedetto de Martino, University of Cambridge
Imperfect choice and the brain: uncertainty, value and decision making
Benedetto is a cognitive neuroscientist who works in the field of decision making. He combines economic models and the tools of cognitive neuroscience, with the aim of developing a realistic account of the behaviour underpinning complex phenomena in economics and finance. His focus is on studying how the human brain computes the values that guide decisions in the face of uncertainty and fragmented information. The goal is to clarify, at the neurobiological level, why some of the most important decisions we make in life are 'suboptimal' or 'imperfect'.
Dr Ainhoa Mielgo Iza, University of Liverpool
Studying the impact of a non-canonical CRAF-PLK1 signalling pathway in desmoplasia and pancreatic cancer progression
Ainhoa is a cancer cell biologist who works on understanding how tumour and stromal cells regulate vital processes, such as apoptosis, proliferation and migration, to survive and promote tumour progression. It has recently become evident that in carcinomas the non-malignant stromal cells play a key role in tumour progression and resistance to therapy. Thus, Ainhoa is currently focusing on understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the proliferation and survival of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). A better understanding of how the proliferation of CAFs is regulated could help improve current anticancer therapies. Therefore, the overall goal of Ainhoa's research programme is to identify novel key regulators necessary for the aberrant proliferation of CAFs and to investigate the therapeutic benefits of inhibiting proliferation of CAFs in cancer.
Dr Nathalie Rochefort, University of Edinburgh
Neuronal circuits and synaptic mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity
Nathalie started her research group in 2013 at the Centre for Integrative Physiology at the University of Edinburgh. She is a sensory neuroscientist whose goal is to understand how neural activity in the visual cortex underlies our perception of a visual scene. By using the method of two-photon calcium imaging combined with electrophysiological recordings, the aim of her project is to determine how sensory experience durably modifies the activity of cortical neuronal networks.
Dr Charlotte Stagg, University of Oxford
Exploring the role of inhibition in human motor plasticity
Charlie is a neuroscientist who is interested in understanding how the brain learns new motor skills. By combining advanced brain imaging techniques and non-invasive brain stimulation approaches, her group will explore the physiological changes underpinning human motor learning. In particular, Charlie is interested in exploring the role of GABA, the major inhibitor neurotransmitter, in motor plasticity. Ultimately this work should help inform new strategies to optimise learning, especially in the context of recovery of function after stroke.
Dr Daniel Streicker, University of Glasgow
Managing viral emergence at the interface of bats and livestock
Daniel is an infectious disease ecologist who aims to develop new strategies to mitigate the impacts of emerging infectious diseases. He seeks to achieve this by understanding the epidemiologial and evolutionary processes that underlie pathogen emergence and establishment in new host species. Based at the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine at the University of Glasgow, he is currently investigating viral dynamics at the interface of vampire bats and livestock in Peru, by combining longitudinal surveillance, phylogenetics, metagenomics and field experiments. Statistical integration of these diverse datasets will empower data-driven epidemiological models, creating a platform to anticipate and control cross-species transmission.
Dr Duncan Wilson, University of Aberdeen
Overcoming nutritional immunity: micronutrient acquisition mechanisms of pathogenic fungi
Duncan is a medical mycologist interested in the struggle for essential micronutrients between human pathogenic fungi and their hosts. Certain trace minerals, such as iron and zinc, are actively withheld from pathogens in a process called nutritional immunity. Therefore, pathogenic microbes must have evolved specialised uptake systems in order to proliferate in their hosts and cause disease. Duncan is using a combination of molecular and cellular biology, together with models of host-pathogen interactions, to dissect the mechanisms of micronutrient assimilation by the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. His aim is to understand how this process contributes to pathogenesis and disease.
Dr Andrew Wood, University of Edinburgh
Chromosomal instability during normal and condensin II-deficient haematopoiesis
Andrew's laboratory studies the mechanisms that maintain a correct number of chromosomes during cell division. He uses blood cell development to understand how effectively these mechanisms operate in vivo, and the consequences of their malfunction on cellular proliferation, differentiation and malignancy.
Dr Caswell Barry, UCL
Role of novelty and uncertainty in memory formation: neural mechanisms
Caswell is a neuroscientist whose goal is to build a computational understanding of the neural basis of memory. This will entail explaining how a network of neurons is able to store, update and retrieve information about the world and events that happen within it. To this end, Caswell studies spatial memory and its representation in the hippocampal formation. His lab uses tools such as computational modelling and optogenetic manipulations to understand how the processes of memory formation and retrieval are triggered.
Dr Isaac Bianco, UCL
From vision to action: systems analysis of sensorimotor circuitry controlling visually guided behaviour
Isaac started his research group in the Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology at UCL in 2013. He is interested in understanding the neural basis of behaviour and his research combines two-photon functional imaging of neural activity with manipulation through optogenetic techniques. In addition, quantitative behavioural assays in larval zebrafish are used to investigate the structure and function of complete sensorimotor circuits.
Dr Miguel Branco, Queen Mary, University of London
Epigenetic control of retrotransposable elements
Miguel is interested in epigenetic mechanisms that regulate genome function and are implicated in cell identity, development and disease. He is currently investigating the role of different DNA modifications in the regulation of transposable elements. Using current and novel epigenomic technologies combined with molecular biology and genetic approaches, he aims to functionally dissect the epigenetic influence that these abundant genomic elements exert on gene expression and how they contribute to phenotypic variability.
Dr James Harker, Imperial College London
Contextual manipulation of the IL-6 family of cytokines to alter and enhance CD4+ T-cell immunity to respiratory viral infections
James is a viral immunologist with research interests in understanding the signals involved in generating potent antibody-mediated immunity to infections. His group in the Leukocyte Biology Section at Imperial College London will focus on determining the processes involved in promoting this type of immune response to respiratory viral infections, with the hope of developing novel therapeutic and vaccination strategies. The lab will use a number of in vivo infectious and genetic models that accurately reflect the complexities of the host immune response, allowing James to dissect how specific molecules, along with factors such as age, timing of infection and virus type, influence the outcome.
Dr Christopher Illingworth, University of Cambridge
Multi-locus models of pathogen evolution
Chris is interested in how genome sequences shed light on the rapid evolution of pathogens. A particular focus for his research is the development of tools for interpreting time-resolved data, where sequences collected across time show evolutionary changes in a population as they occur. Working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Cambridge, Chris hopes to better understand how pathogens respond to evolutionary pressures such as host immune responses and drug therapy.
Dr Annemieke de Jong, University of Oxford
Lipid antigen presentation by CD1a and its role in antimicrobial epithelial defence and immunopathology
Annemieke is a cellular immunologist whose interests focus on a specific subset of human T cells which recognise lipid antigens in a complex with the lipid-antigen-presenting molecule CD1. After first identifying CD1a-restricted T cells that act in the skin, she aims to gain more insight into the physiological functions of these lipid-specific T cells, specifically how changes in lipid composition that occur in inflammation and infection can affect T-cell activation, their ability to recognise microbe-specific lipid structures and their role in autoimmune diseases of the skin.
Dr James Kirkbride, UCL
Psychosis risk over the life course: a multilevel, longitudinal investigation of social, economic and physical environmental risk factors at different stages in life
James is a psychiatric epidemiologist interested in understanding how exposure to social factors, including the environments in which we live, may contribute to our risk of psychosis over the life course. He is currently investigating how the social and environmental factors we are exposed to at different periods of our lives (in early infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood) may contribute to developing severe mental illnesses, such as psychotic disorder. He is particularly interested in social inequalities, minority position, and ethnicity. James tests his research questions in England, Sweden and Canada, applying multilevel and spatial regression techniques to longitudinal datasets available in these countries.
Dr Bon-Kyoung Koo, University of Cambridge
Characterisation of novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that are enriched in LGR5-positive intestinal stem cells and niche
Bon-Kyoung is a mouse geneticist with broad experience in the field of E3 ubiquitin ligases. He is based at the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, where he studies the role of endosomal E3 ubiquitin ligases in two major signalling pathways. Currently, his research focus is on identifying and understanding the role of novel E3 ubiquitin ligases in homeostatic regulation of stem cells.
Dr Dante Mantini, University of Oxford
Large-scale alterations of cortical activity induced by brain lesions and their relevance to behavioural deficits
Dante is a cognitive neuroscientist who combines neuroimaging experiments and computational models to understand the functional architecture of the brain. He works in the field of brain connectivity, investigating how dynamic interactions between distant brain regions are generated. His current work focuses on examining changes in behaviour and brain connectivity following highly controlled lesions in the macaque brain. This research may have an impact on the way we view the effects of brain lesioning on cognition.
Dr Gary Mirams, University of Oxford
Improving assessment of drug-induced cardiac risk with mathematical electrophysiology models
Gary is a computational biologist working on the prediction of potential cardiac side-effects associated with a novel drug compound during its development. Pharmaceutical companies can already perform experiments to measure how drug compounds affect some of the ion channel proteins that control the electrical wave that activates the heart. Gary is using mathematical models of cardiac electrophysiology to integrate this information by performing simulations of the electrical activity of the heart at the cell and tissue levels. The aim is to predict any increased risk of disturbances to human heart rhythm earlier in drug development and more accurately than the existing animal-based safety tests.
Dr Patricia Muller, University of Leicester
Mutant p53 enhances receptor recycling to enhance invasion and chemo-resistance
Patricia is a cancer biologist who has studied the role of mutant p53 proteins in cancer. She has characterised an important intracellular pathway (Rab-coupling protein-driven receptor recycling) as a molecular mechanism underlying mutant p53-driven invasion and metastasis. Mutant p53 expression frequently correlates with drug resistance, and preliminary data reveal a potential role for receptor recycling in mediating chemo-resistance. Using molecular and imaging approaches, Patricia will extend these studies to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying mutant p53-dependent chemo-resistance and to further characterise the molecular pathways regulated by mutant p53 to promote invasion and metastasis.
Dr Helen Rowe, UCL
Epigenetic pathways through which endogenous retroviruses regulate cellular genes in pluripotent cells
Helen is investigating the function of the repetitive genome with a focus on endogenous retroviruses, which represent around 10 per cent of mammalian genomes. Her research, using the mouse model, has revealed that rather than being ‘junk DNA’, as previously thought, endogenous retroviruses recruit epigenetic marks and serve as important regulatory elements to affect gene expression, particularly in stem cells. This is because stem cells are enriched in novel factors that target retroviral sequences in order to protect genome integrity. By characterising these factors, Helen aims to uncover the mechanisms by which endogenous retroviruses regulate stem cell biology and early embryogenesis. This work is relevant to the understanding and development of stem cell therapies.
Dr Thomas Walker, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Wolbachia transinfection of Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes to impact transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus
Tom is based in the Department of Disease Control at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and is working on developing a mosquito biocontrol method to reduce the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) using the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. His research aims to determine whether particular strains of this bacterium can prevent or reduce the transmission of JEV in mosquitoes. Laboratory-based experiments to infect mosquitoes with Wolbachia and to determine the subsequent effects will aim to form the basis for an applied control programme to reduce JEV transmission in wild mosquito populations.
Dr Simone Weyand, University of Cambridge
Towards a molecular understanding of neurotransmitter transporter cellular activities
Simone is a biochemist and biophysicist who has worked on the structure determination of membrane proteins, such as the bacterial transporter Mhp1 and the human histamine H1 receptor, by the use of X-ray crystallography. Her Fellowship work uses a holistic approach to understanding the molecular mechanism of human neurotransmitter transporters by investigating the high-resolution structure and the functional analysis and trafficking in the cell. This combined approach, including different techniques, will provide deeper insights into the basic principle of action of these proteins and will eventually enable a more rational and efficient drug design.
Dr Daniel Wilson, University of Oxford
Statistical methods for whole-genome phenotype mapping in bacterial populations
Daniel is an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Oxford, where his laboratory investigates pathogen evolution and epidemiology via whole-genome sequencing. He is a collaborator in the Modernising Medical Microbiology Consortium, whose aim is to harness genomics for microbiological diagnostics and infection control in hospitals. Daniel’s work currently focuses on the identification of genetic variants in pathogen genomes that explain differences in the frequency and severity of infections, particularly hospital-associated infections including Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile and norovirus.
Dr Stephen Baker, University of Oxford
The epidemiology, genomics and longitudinal immune response of Shigella infections in Vietnamese children
Stephen is a molecular microbiologist based at the Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. He has been there since November 2007 and is the head of the enteric infections research group, which studies the microbiology, genetics, epidemiology and treatment of enteric infections in low-income countries. Focal pathogens include Norovirus, Shigella spp. and Salmonella typhi, the causative agents of diarrhoea, dysentery and typhoid fever, respectively. His current direction combines microbiological, immunological and geographical information to study how organisms are transmitted in urban environments and how this interplay can be used to design and implement vaccination strategies.
Dr Edgar Deu, National Institute for Medical Research
Functional characterisation of essential enzymes in Plasmodium
Edgar’s research focuses on identifying and studying the biological function of novel antimalarial targets, with the aim of opening new therapeutic avenues to fight malaria. He combines chemical biology approaches with genetic methods to identify enzymes that are essential for parasite development, validate them as antimalarial targets and characterise their molecular functions. So far his research has particularly focused on the biological roles of a multifunctional protease involved in red blood cell invasion, parasite maturation, and parasite egress from infected erythrocytes.
Dr Yi Feng, University of Edinburgh
Live imaging and genetic analysis of the inflammatory response upon oncogene-induced tissue homeostasis disruption and its contribution to tumour initiation in zebrafish larvae
Yi’s lab at the MRC Centre for Inflammation Research at the University of Edinburgh uses a combination of live imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to study the earliest events of tumour initiation in vivo. Her research focuses on interactions between normal host tissue with transformed cells and infiltrating innate immune cells, and she has demonstrated that the latter mount a trophic response toward emergent transformed cells. Her research aims to understand underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating this trophic inflammation response during tumour initiation.
Dr Benjamin Hale, University of Glasgow, MRC
Interplay between influenza viruses and host ubiquitin signalling
Ben established his own research laboratory at the MRC University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research in 2011. The lab is predominantly focused on dissecting the functional roles of specific host ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (e.g. SUMO) modifications during influenza virus infection. His aims are to understand how these fundamental host-cell signalling molecules are hijacked by influenza viruses to ensure efficient replication, and how they are used by the cell to regulate host antiviral defences.
Dr John James, University of Cambridge
Decision making in immune cell activation
Our immune system is a network of white blood cells and proteins that keeps us healthy. John’s research focuses on how T cells in the immune system make a committed decision to initiate an immune response on encountering an infected cell. The signalling network inside these cells is complex, so John has reconstituted a ‘model’ T cell that provides a more tractable way to explore the molecular mechanism of the decision-making process. This research will lead to a better understanding of how our immune system can discriminate between infected and healthy cells, and how we may be able to manipulate it therapeutically when needed.
Dr Jens Januschke, University of Dundee
Recycling polarity - mechanisms controlling stem cell polarity in consecutive divisions in the developing Drosophila central nervous system
Central to Jens’s research interests are the mechanisms behind the dynamics of cell polarisation in cycling cells. In particular, he is using life-cell imaging approaches to study how cell polarity and asymmetric division are linked in neuroblasts, the rapidly dividing stem cells of the developing Drosophila central nervous system.
Dr Pablo Lamata, King’s College London
Diastolic-PM: diastolic biomarkers based on physiological models
Pablo is investigating the diastolic performance of the heart. He is developing new methods to measure the heart’s speed of relaxation, the compliance of the muscle, and the pressure driving the blood flow during the filling phase of the heart cycle. The methods are based on the combination of recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging and computational cardiac modelling
Dr Selinda J Orr, Cardiff University
Collaborative and redundant roles of CLRs in antifungal immunity
Selinda’s laboratory is part of the Myeloid Cell Biology Group at Cardiff University. She aims to understand collaborative responses between C-type lectin-like receptors and to determine how these responses could be targeted to improve antifungal immunity.
Dr Tim P Vogels, University of Oxford
Controlling balanced cortical dynamics on slow and fast timescales
Tim is working to understand and reproduce how the brain processes sensory information, by investigating the rules by which its neuronal architecture is constructed and maintained. He is exploring the tight interaction between neuronal activity and the network structure that sustains this activity and the manifold rules that govern these interactions, differing by cell type. Due to the complexity of such high-dimensional systems, Tim simulates these interactions in abstract, simplified computer models. He aims to test out ideas of what such rules could be, and to make experimentally testable predictions about them. This in turn will help to further flesh out a more exact model of the brain, and hopefully spawn further questions and ideas to try out.
Dr Bungo Akiyoshi, University of Oxford
Elucidating the mechanism of chromosome segregation in Trypanosoma brucei
From September 2013, Bungo will be working in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, studying trypanosomal kinetochores as a group leader.
Dr Jennifer Bizley, University College London
Listening in a noisy world: the role of visual activity in auditory cortex for sound perception
Jennifer is a sensory neuroscientist whose goal is to understand how neural activity in auditory cortex underpins our perception of a sound scene. By combining electrophysiological and behavioural approaches Jennifer aims to explore how the activity of single neurons and neural populations results in sensory discrimination. Jennifer’s current research explores how and when visual information influences auditory perception, and how visual signals alter activity in auditory cortex.
Dr Maciej Boni, University of Oxford
Epidemiology of human influenza in Vietnam
Maciej is currently running a serial seroepidemiology study on human influenza in southern Vietnam and an influenza-like illness study in Ho Chi Minh City. The results of this work will be used to determine whether influenza viruses persist year-to-year in Vietnam and, more broadly, to determine whether countries like Vietnam have the right conditions to seed influenza epidemics in other parts of the world.
Dr Tiago Branco, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Dendritic integration in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
In 2012 Tiago started his own group at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, where he combines physiological and molecular methods to investigate how the mouse brain implements the computations that underlie innate behaviours. He is currently a Visiting Scientist at the Janelia Farm Research Campus, working on synaptic integration in the hypothalamic circuits that control feeding behaviour.
Dr Omer Dushek, University of Oxford
Predicting efficient T cell activation with therapeutic applications
Omer is currently working at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at the University of Oxford. His research in molecular immunology aims to use a combination of mathematical modelling and quantitative experiments to understand the complex interplay between the signalling proteins that regulate the activation of T lymphocytes.
Dr Stephen Graham, University of Cambridge
Molecular mechanisms of membrane trafficking in pathology and infectious disease
Stephen is interested in how eukaryotic cells effect communication between their membrane-bound compartments, how such communication is regulated, and how viruses subvert these mechanisms to their own ends during infection. He uses primarily biophysical and structural biology techniques to address these questions and is currently based in the Virology Division of the Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.
Dr Garrett Hellenthal, University College London
Inferring human colonisation history using genetic data
Garrett has been working at University College London since 2012, developing statistical methods to infer population history using DNA. He is currently developing methods to identify periods in the past when worldwide populations have exchanged DNA, for example due to invasions or migrations, and to describe the genetic make-up of the groups involved in these events. One current project involves characterising the genetic structure of the United Kingdom as part of the People of the British Isles project.
Dr Christopher Rodgers, University of Oxford
Advanced human cardiovascular magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Chris runs the Cardiac Spectroscopy group at the Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford. His research group develops methods for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the human heart at ultra-high field strength (7 Tesla). His group has recently recorded the first cardiac 31P magnetic resonance spectra at 7T, already showing significantly better quality than established field strengths.
Dr Kevin Waldron, Newcastle University
Mechanisms of copper and silver toxicity in Staphylococcus aureus
Based at Newcastle University, Kevin’s research aims to understand the roles of metal ions and metalloproteins in biological systems, how metal selectivity is achieved in vivo, and how metals cause toxicity when metal homeostasis breaks down due to metal excess, genetic mutation or disease. This puts his research interests on the interface between inorganic chemistry and biochemistry. His Fellowship project aims to bring together data obtained by a range of biochemical, genetic, biophysical and proteomic approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms by which copper ions kill Staphylococcus aureus cells, and to assess the risk of spontaneous resistance arising.
Dr Sarah Woolner, University of Manchester
Mitotic spindle orientation and the mechanical tissue environment
Sarah’s research aims to understand how cell behaviour in developing embryos is influenced by the external tissue environment. In particular, she is focusing on determining how cell division orientation is directed by mechanical tissue cues. The orientation of cell division plays a vital role in shaping and organising tissues and in determining cell fate.Sarah’s lab is based in the Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research at the University of Manchester.